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PIARC (World Road Association), founded in 1909 and comprising 125 member governments from all over the world, is the global forum for exchange of knowledge and experience on roads, road transport policies and practices. With consultative status to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, the Association is contributing to a stable and sustainable global development of the road and transport sector.

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Modelling Road User and Environmental Effects in HDM-4

This document is the seventh volume in the series of seven volumes of HDM-4 documentation. It covers modelling road user and environmental effects (RUEE).

The report presents an overview of how they are introduced in studies and describes representative vehicles.

The second section deals with road user effects. It provides details on the various components of these effects: Forces opposing motion; Free speeds; Effects of volume on traffic flow; Fuel consumption; Tyre consumption; Maintenance and repair costs; Utilisation and service life; Capital costs; Engine oil consumption; Travel time, crew and overhead costs; Safety; Non-motorised transport; Work zone effects on traffic and user costs; Heavy vehicle trailers.

The third section deals with vehicle emissions, noise emissions and energy balance considerations.

Information sheet

  • Date: 2004
  • Author(s): GREENWOOD Ian / BENNETT Christopher R.
  • Domain(s): Road Policies / Environment / Economic Studies / Road Assets Management / Road Pavements
  • PIARC Ref.: HDM4-Volume7EN
  • ISBN: 2-84060-103-6
  • Number of pages: 412