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Modelling Road User and Environmental Effects in HDM-4

This document is the seventh volume in the series of seven volumes of HDM-4 documentation. It covers modelling road user and environmental effects (RUEE).

The report presents an overview of how they are introduced in studies and describes representative vehicles.

The second section deals with road user effects. It provides details on the various components of these effects: Forces opposing motion; Free speeds; Effects of volume on traffic flow; Fuel consumption; Tyre consumption; Maintenance and repair costs; Utilisation and service life; Capital costs; Engine oil consumption; Travel time, crew and overhead costs; Safety; Non-motorised transport; Work zone effects on traffic and user costs; Heavy vehicle trailers.

The third section deals with vehicle emissions, noise emissions and energy balance considerations.

Information sheet

  • Date: 2004
  • Author(s): GREENWOOD Ian / BENNETT Christopher R.
  • Domain(s): Road Policies / Environment / Economic Studies / Road Assets Management / Road Pavements
  • PIARC Ref.: HDM4-Volume7EN
  • ISBN: 2-84060-103-6
  • Number of pages: 412