XIXth World Road Congress - Marrakech 1991 - National reports


Question 1: Road Policies (financing, strategies, organization)

Question 2: Construction and maintenance

Question 3: Operation and management

Question 4: Safety

Question 1 - Road Policies (financing, strategies, organization)

  • A. Planning
    1. Transport and mobility policies, including the different kinds of transport systems (road and public transport, transportation by rail, water and air, pipelines, etc.) and the eventual interactions (e.g. park-and-ride systems, etc.)
    1.1 Evolution and forecasting of the needs (newlinks, tunnels.etc
    1.2 Co-ordination of the public administrations involved
    1.3 Accessibility and environmental effects
    1.4 The effects of a non-realization of road projects
    1.5 Maintenance policy (including financial and energy levels)
    1.6 Participation of pedestrians and cyclists in the road policy and mobility
    2. How and where to influence and improve traffic : means, possibilities (e.g. traffic reducing measures, etc.)
    3. Distinction between operational investment and strategic investment
    4. The actual planning
    4.1 Practical solutions (new links. tunnels, etc.)
    4.2 Practical guidelines for decision-makers
    4.3 Planning of urban roads, interurban roads, rural roads
  • B. Assessment
    1. Optimum financing systems
    2. Multicriteria studies (e.g. cost-benefit analyses, safety measures, etc.)
    3. Influence on the environment
    4. Post assessment
  • C. Financing
    1. Financing of road Construction: public, private, mixed forms of financing
    2. Financing of road maintenance: public, private, mixed forms of financing
    3. Repayment of road investments
    3.1 Survey of the procedures applied
    3.2 Repayment of public financing (by means of taxes, duties, tolls, etc.)
    3.3 Repayment of private financing
    3.4 Repayment of mixed forms of financing
    3.5 Repayment of financing and compensation for infrastructure costs, subsidies
    4. Developing countries
    4.1 Financing of road Construction, rehabilitation and maintenance : international financing institutions, local agencies, etc.
    4.2 Influence of the financing system on strategy and planning
    4.3 Privatization of road Construction and maintenance (toll roads, licences,...)
    5. Practical examples and acquired expériences of the already applied financing systems
  • D. Strategies
    1. Specific strategy for developing countries
    1.1 Strategy of allocation of funds between new Construction and maintenance
    1.2 National policies under condition of scarce funding
    2. Improvement of public awareness towards the advantages of road investments (e.g. increasing of safety, regional economic development based on multicriteria analysis, carrying out the improvements required by the impact studies on the environment, etc.)
    3. Maintenance strategy and road data banks to support decision-making
    3.1 Integrated approach
    3.2 State controlled maintenance
    3.3 Private contractors in the maintenance policy
    3.4 Post assessment.
    4. Examples: experiences of the member countries in their own country; experiences of the member countries in other countries
    5. Practicai guidelines for an optimum strategy
  • E. Organization
    1. OPtimization of management (public, private or mixed systems)
    2. Use of new systems (based on electronics, computer technology, etc.)
    3. Information of the road users (radio, TV, newspapers, etc.)
    4. Optimization of the use of road networks
    4.1 Road transport and public transport
    4.2 Influence of other road users : cyclists, pedestrians, etc.
    4.3 Alternative routes (e.g. in case of road and tunnel maintenance, traffic accidents blocking main roads, etc.)

Pages 1-98 (16898 Ko)

Pages 99-166 (10075 Ko)

Pages 167-254 (13843 Ko)

Pages 255-334 (12235 Ko)

Pages 335-430 (15304 Ko)

Pages 431-507 (15028 Ko)

Question II - Construction and maintenance

1. Général questions
In the design, Construction, maintenance and opération the considération of the following :
1.1 Optimization of whole life costing
1.2 Environmental issues
1.3 Means of ensuring close co-operation between people in charge of the various fields
1.4 Quality assurance systems
1.5 Construction and maintenance under trafic conditions: influence on the choice of solutions

2. Earthworks and internal drainage
2.1 In situ geotechnical surveys and control methods (development, use and interpretation)
2.2 Soils and other materials (including marginal materials) : classification, sélection criteria, performances
2.3 Use of geosynthetic materials (geotextiles, etc.) for soil strengthening and drainage
2.4 Earthworks in difficult conditions : desert areas, embankments on soft soil, cuttings in unstable materials

3. Pavement design
3.1 Now design concepts (embracing pavement, earthworks, drainage, etc.)
3.2 Monitoring pavement performance on the site and comparison with forecasts, long term performance
3.3 Methods of measuring excessive loads and consideration of their effects on the design

4. Road Construction
4.1 Modified binders (also in bituminous mixes) : use and performance
4.2 Pavements with unusually thin surfacing
4.3 Control and Construction: modern mechanized methods; labour-intensive methods
4.4 Roads in desert, tropical and mountainous areas

5. Maintenance: maintenance and rehabilitation techniques including drainage: assessment of expériences:
5.1 Paved roads
5.2 Unpaved roads

6. Other innovations for the whole field of Question II (not explicitly mentioned in thèmes 1 to 5 : e.g. bridges, tunnels and equipment)

Pages 1-116 (19410 Ko)

Pages 117-188 (12504 Ko)

Pages 189-272 (14447 Ko)

Pages 273-356 (13394 Ko)

Pages 357-449 (15847 Ko)

Pages 449-527 (12451 Ko)

Pages 527-596 (12941 Ko)

Question III - Operation and management

  • A. Traffic and traffic management
    1. Traffic surveillance and management
    2. Communication with the driver, and between the driver, the vehicle and the infrastructure
    2.1 Road signs (including fixed ans variable message signs)
    2.2 Vehicle and driver guidance
    2.3 Traffic control
    2.4 Automatic toll equipement
    3. Incident management
    3.1 Management systems for incidents
    3.2 Collection of legal evidence
    3.3 Vehicle removal (technical and légal problems)
    3.4 Cargo removal (safety of hazardous materials)
    4. Improvement of road capacity
    4.1 Regulations (parking, lanes, etc.)
    4.2 Priority and reversible lanes
    4.3 Access limitations
    4.4 Car pooling
    4.5 Road pricing for traffic management
    5. Minimization of the négative effects of roadworks on traffic
    5.1 Co-ordination of work sites
    5.2 Traffic management at work sites
    6. Enforcement of vehicle size and weight régulations
    7. Transport of hazardous materials
    8. Roads in urban and rural areas with mixed motorized and non-motorized traffic
    9. Management of tunnels (including lighting and ventilation)
    10. Restoration of communications after natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, etc.)
  • B. Information for road management
    1. Data collection techniques and equipment
    1.1 Traffic characteristics
    1.2 Pavement conditions
    1.3 Bridge and tunnel conditions
    2. Road date banks
    2.1 Storage (equipment, location and access)
    2.2 Date authentication and verification
  • C. Systems for road management
    1. Pavement performance models (bearing capacity, skid resistance, roughness)
    2. Life cycle cost analysis
    3. Maintenance programming and management systems
    4. Models derived from the HDM model
    5. Bridge and tunnel management
  • D. Other innovations in operations and management

Pages 1-98 (14988 Ko)

Pages 98-174 (13550 Ko)

Pages 175-260 (13662 Ko)

Pages 261-358 (14240 Ko)

Pages 359-438 (12132 Ko)

Pages 439-501 (11111 Ko)

Question IV - Safety

  • 1. General comments
    Distinctions will be made between urban and non-urban situations, taking account especially of motorized and non-motorized road users.
    1.1 Statement of objectives:
    - reduce casualties and damage.
    - help decision-makers to define safety policies
    1.2 Cost-effectiveness of measures taken to achieve objectives
    1.3 Environmental and social impact of safety measures
    1.4 Quality and effectiveness of methods used for communicating the results of the examination of safety
    1.5 Requirements of those who provide road systems and of those who use them
  • 2. Statistical assessment and targets
    2.1 Methodology for collecting reliable and relevant data. including national surveys and in-depth studies
    2.2 Establishment of key indicators, such as common accident rates, and other indicators (related, for instance to weather conditions or to specific types of user)
    2.3 Interpretation of data both quantitatively and qualitatively for policy and strategic purposes
    2.1 Methods of processing and analysing data and the extent of analysis
    2.5 Consistency of results and monitoring of trends
    2.6 Setting of realistic safety targets
  • 3. Safety factors
    3.1 Recent and future developments concerning safety in relation to différent categories of road and structures design, whether they be new design or redesign
    3.2 Assessment of safety gains from the improvement of maintenance of roads and structures, traffic management, weather forecasts, signallinq at road works, road equipment
    3.3 Recent developments of the methodology of assessment of the economic balance between safety-costs and safety benefits e.g. value of human life, value of time, damage limitation
    3.4 Specific safety measures concerning vulnerable users, e.g. children, pedestrians, disabled and elderly people
  • 4. Management of safety and user behaviour
    4.1 Recent and future development of communication to users to enhance safety
    4.2 Recent and future development concerning co-operation among managers to prevent accidents and to monitor their effects. Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional liaison to enhance safety, including inteqrated safety measures
    4.3 Effectiveness of influencing user behaviour by means of 1egis1a1ion, regulations, enforcement, incentives, road design, user perception as well as by other means (for example speed limits)
    4.4 Assessment of high rsk categories: people and goods
    4.5 Effectiveness of education, training, publicity campaigns
    4.6 Organization of rescue services after accidents (accessibility, communication, signalling, etc.)
  • 5. Interaction bstween the roacbmy and the vehicle
    5.1 New and future developments in relation to compatibility between roads vehicles and road users, including, for example, road and tyre contact, vehicle handling, etc.
    5.2 What is the balance: vehicles for roads or roads for vehicles ?
  • 6. Other innovations and research needed ; for example:new methods of analysis of data such as expert systems, flexibility of design, real time information and communication systems, specialized roads for particular users, user behaviour, etc.

Pages 1-93 (16446 Ko)

Pages 95-190 (17344 Ko)

Pages 191-288 (15645 Ko)

Pages 289-376 (15368 Ko)

Pages 377-450 (13388 Ko)

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